Have you ever asked yourself why you find things like this so fascinating? The reason, I suspect, is because down inside you feel uncertain and nervous about the future and think these things might help you feel more confident.
But this is precisely why I urge you to put your trust in God alone for the future. As I have often said, predictions like these about the future are almost never on target (or else they are too vague to really mean anything). Why build your life around them or get your guidance from them? They are only a substitute for the guidance you really need—which is from God.
My other concern, however, is one that I hope you will take very seriously. These things may seem innocent and amusing at first—but it's easy to get more and more fascinated with them, and eventually become involved in occult practices that are not from God.
Don't be misled: Occult practices are not from God, but from spiritual forces opposed to God. Instead, put your faith and trust in Christ. When we know Him, we know we are safely in His hands no matter what the future holds. The Bible is right: "When men tell you to consult mediums and spiritists ... should not a people inquire of their God?" (Isaiah 8:19).
Here is how I come at astrology: I am an amateur "astrological psychologist," meaning I find a lot of truth in personality research in relation to signs. I have never found anything to put stock in astrology as future prediction - daily horoscopes and the like. However, the stars do seem to affect many aspects of people's personalities!
I don't know a whole lot about planets and houses. That's more of what you'd find on cafeastrology I'd think. What I do know is that a good place to start if you're interested in learning more about your inner self or your friends' personalities is to find out their Sun and Rising (also called Ascendant) signs. You can usually find out Sun easily; Rising has to do with the time you were born as well as the date. This site has a good calculator that also gives pretty good Rising sign personality descriptions: http://www.horoscopeswithin.com/calculate.php. Why are these most useful to start with? Sun signs, the ones you usually hear about, are your fundamental, "inner" self: deep down, this is what you are like. BUT, Rising signs characterize people often more accurately, because they tell about their "outer" self, how they present themselves, react, and interact with others. People often get confused because they don't think they are "like" their Sun sign, because they're judging by how they act, which is often more like their Rising sign.
You don't need a lot of fancy chart data to start on this part; your chart apparently tells you your Sun and Ascendant, and that's the best place to start. Look over a variety of descriptions of both signs on different websites - there's a lot of bunk out there, only experience will tell which platitudes about each sign turn out to be true. Not every "characteristic" of a sign will describe YOU either - it's just a guide. I also find that as I mature, I find I become more and more like my Sun sign without realizing it.
Finally, my favorite book on the subject is Robin McNaughton's Sun Sign Personality Guide. It's the book that's most accurate compared to my observations that I've found out there, so I'd really recommend picking up a 2nd hand copy on half.com or something if you're interested in the psychology of signs!