Which of the following correctly describes contrasting features of a plant cell and an animal cell?
Plant cells have a cell membrane, and animals have both cell walls and a cell membrane.
Plant cells have a large central vacuole that takes up most of the cell’s space, and animal cells have many smaller vacuoles.
Plant cells have both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, while animal cells have only smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Plant cells have lysosomes with enzymes, while animal cells have only the Golgi apparatus.
Studies have shown that some medications can damage mitochondria. Which of the following would you predict to be the most likely long-term effect on an organism with damaged mitochondria?
Errors would be made during DNA replication, and the organism would be more likely to develop cancer.
Proteins would not be modified after being synthesized, and the organism would be unable to grow.
Substances would not be able to enter or leave the cells of the organism, and affected cells would eventually burst.
The organism would suffer as its cells would be less able to provide the energy needed to carry out life functions.
When plants wilt, their soft stems and leaves begin to droop. What is going on inside the plants' cells that causes plants to droop like this? (2 points)
The cell membranes begin to come apart when there is insufficient water around the cells
The cell walls become brittle as they dry out, and some of them collapse.
The central vacuoles in the cells lose water and can no longer help support the cells.
The cytoplasm of the cells becomes more concentrated, which slowly poisons the cells.
Why is it important that the inside of a lysosome have a lower pH than the surrounding cytoplasm in the cell? (2 points)
The digestive enzymes in the lysosome work best at a lower pH.
The protein molecules constructed in the lysosome form best at a lower pH.
The substances stored in a lysosome are most stable at a lower pH.
The waste products stored in the lysosome require a lower pH.
Some muscle cells have the ability to produce more mitochondria if they are involved in regular exercise. Which answer correctly describes a benefit of this ability? (2 points)
Cellular respiration rates would increase in the individual’s cells.
More fat molecules would be burned by the individual.
The individual’s mass would increase due to the excess mitochondria.
The individual would not need as much food as before.
While the average human is able to hold his or her breath for approximately one minute, a whale can dive for over 30 minutes without retuning to the surface. Which of the following correctly describes this difference? (2 points)
Whales are able to tolerate the products of cellular respiration better than humans.
Whales have a slower cellular respiration metabolism rate than humans.
Whales gather energy from their environment better than humans.
Whales need less energy than humans.
Which of the following is needed for cellular respiration to occur? (2 points)
Cellular respiration is a process involving the breakdown of glucose molecules in order to generate energy for cellular activities. Given the general reaction below, which of the following best describes the products labeled x and y?
C6H12O6 + O2 FLVS_AP_ENVSCI_02.06_Q1 _x___ + __y___ + energy
The products are CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2O (water), which then become the reactants for photosynthesis.
The products are CO (carbon monoxide) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide), which then decompose into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
The products are H2O (water) and CO2 (carbon dioxide), which then undergo anaerobic respiration.
The products are O2 (oxygen) and H2O (water), which are then used for growth and to keep the organism hydrated.
During photosynthesis, unused oxygen atoms form oxygen gas (O2), which is released as a waste product. How did these oxygen atoms originally enter the plant? (2 points)
They were part of the ATP molecules gathered by the chloroplasts.
They were part of the carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules that entered through the leaves.
They were part of the sugar molecules (C6H12O6) the plant brought in for food.
They were part of the water molecules (H2O) pulled in through the roots.