New Research Helps Understand Lung Cancer Progression

Lung Cancer Protein TIAM1

Lung Cancer Protein TIAM1

According to the American Lung Association, lung cancer remains the leading cancer killer in both men and women. With many Americans having a long history of smoking cigarettes that is unlikely to change soon. A staggering 159,260 Americans will die from lung cancer in 2014, which is approximately 27% of all cancer deaths. Over 400,000 Americans are currently battling lung cancer.

Unfortunately lung cancer is both prevalent and extremely dangerous, remaining one of the most deadly forms of the disease. The amount of damage that lung cancer has caused our society is massive and it is expected to continue for many years because of cigarette usage. Surprisingly, cigarette usage is increasing in many parts of the world!

Thankfully, some new research will help specialists understand how lung cancer spreads, potentially leading to new treatments. Researchers found that lung cancer cells had severed proteins, which helped them separate and proliferate through the body. While cells do normally separate, cancer cells are especially prone to cell separation.

By understanding how these proteins work, researchers believe they may be able to prevent cancer cells from metastasizing. One protein link which is important in the functioning of lung cancer is TIAM1. TIAM1 helps determine how strong the links are between cancer cells in the lungs.

Lead researcher Dr. Angeliki Malliri explains: “This important research shows for the first time how lung cancer cells sever ties with their neighbors and start to spread around the body, by hijacking the cells’ recycling process and sending it into overdrive. Targeting this flaw could help stop lung cancer from spreading,”

If drugs can be developed to change the way specific proteins function, researchers may develop drugs that completely stop lung cancer from spreading. If the research comes to fruition, it could save millions of lives.

Survival Rates Increasing with Targeted Molecular Therapy

James Lagno Cancer Genomics Treatment

James Lagno Cancer Genomics Treatment

ABC news have posted a story about a man named James Lango, who was diagnosed with a number of cancers, but has survived longer than expected thanks to an experimental cancer treatment. “Molecular targeted therapy” was used on Lagno, with new varieties of drugs tailored specifically to target the type of cancer he has.

Lagno had a combination of cancers including late stage lung cancer, thyroid cancer and brain lesions. The survival rate for late stage lung cancer alone is very low, so doctors had given him a year at the most.

A biopsy of one of the tumors in James’ lungs found a rare mutation responsible for the cancer. Using the DNA from that mutation, a drug was developed that specifically targeted it. The drugs target specific proteins that are used by this particular cancer mutation.

Lagno still has tumors, but they have not grown or spread, because the cancer lacks the proteins required to help it spread. He has survived for three year so far, when doctors expected one year at the most thanks to the treatent.

The drug in question is “Ceritinib”. It has recently been approved by the FDA. It is one of a wave of new drugs coming onto the market that are designed to target specific cancers based upon their DNA and the proteins they use to spread through the body.

The FDA are also streamlining their approvals process so many of the high specialized DNA targeted cancer drugs are getting to market quickly. Great news for cancer sufferers.

Exciting New Lung Cancer Drugs

Immunotherapy Lung Cancer Treatment

Immunotherapy Lung Cancer Treatment

Researchers have revealed some new drug treatments which are capable of completely clearing tumors for people with advanced stage lung cancer.

Lung cancer is one of the most aggressive forms of the disease and once it has metastasized to other parts of the body the prognosis for the patient is usually very grim and they usually only have months to live. These new immunotherapy drugs are capable of not only attacking tumors within the lungs but following the cancer to other sites that it has metastasized throughout the body.

One patient who had lung cancer that metastasized through to his brain, bones and adrenal glans saw complete remission, which astonished and excited many researchers.

Lung cancer is still one of the biggest killers in the world with many baby boomers who were smoking earlier in their lives finding themselves afflicted with it. Lung cancer kills more people than breast or bowel cancer, the other two prevalent forms of the disease.

The results of the most recent drug trial will be presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago, in a few days time.

One of the drugs that has shown incredible results is called nivolumab. In the trials, at least 129 (24% of the total patients) who had advanced lung cancer have survived for two or more years since starting nivolumab. For a disease that usually kills within months once it has advanced, that is an astonishing result.

Researchers said some of the patients had extremely advanced cancer that would normally kill them within a couple of months, but they are still alive because of the treatment.
One of the researchers, Dr Mick Peake of Glenfield Hospital says: “By the time it’s spread that far, you don’t expect patients to last more than a couple of months. But in a recent scan, his doctor could not find any evidence of residual disease.”

Survival rates with the optimum dose are even higher, with 45% still alive after two years. To get such large percentages surviving an aggressive form of cancer for so long is exciting for researchers. The sheer number of positive cases is also unusual, as it is such a massive and widespread improvement.

These new types of “immunotherapy” drugs are also called anti-PD1s or anti-PDL1s, and work by teaching the immune system to see tumors as something to be attacked. Normally cancer cells cloak themselves from the immune system, so unlike an infection the immune system will ignore them.

Another similar drug called MK3475 has also been showing incredible results and according to researchers they could conceivably be a large component of the the cure for cancer. At the very least, with refinement they could allow cancer patients to live for many more years than they currently do.

Dr Julie Brahmer of John Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Centre in Baltimore has helped lead the US nivolumab trials. Dr Brahmer suggests that while it is too early to call the treatments a cure for cancer, the results are astonishing with tumors shrinking to almost nothing and people with aggressive cancers living for years.

There is also some suggestion that the immune system learns how to treat cancerous tumors in the future because it continues to attack them after the drugs have stopped.

The researchers will continue to develop the immunotherapy drugs and research how they can interact with other new drugs and common treatments to make them more effective. There may be even some possibility of combining the effectiveness of these drugs with other that utilize viruses to further mark the tumors as foreign bodies that should be attacked.

Report: Air Pollution Causes Cancer

Air Pollution and Cancer

Air Pollution and Cancer

A new report has been released by a medical research group working for the World Health Organization (WHO) that confirms air pollution is giving people lung cancer.

The WHO sponsored organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancers (IARC), suggests that heavy air pollution is in fact more dangerous than smoking cigarettes.

In previous research, scientists revealed that certain components of air pollution like diesel fumes are in fact carcinogens. This new report expands that carcinogen classification to air pollution and smog in totality.

Your chances of getting lung cancer from air pollution are low, but air pollution is so persistent now, that exposure is common and difficult to avoid. From motor vehicles to aircraft, power plants and industrial emissions, the level of air pollution in most parts of the world continues to rise.

Air pollution has also been linked to heart disease and other respiratory illnesses. Scientists expect that the findings will speed up the push for tighter air pollution controls in many countries. There are also grave concerns over a number of cities in China where air pollution is a large problem – rates of lung cancer and respiratory illnesses are expected to increase rapidly.

Scientists Discover Proteins That Stop Cancer

Proteins could lead to Cancer Cure

Proteins could lead to Cancer Cure

Some interesting research has just been published in the Cancer Discovery scientific journal identifying a protein that can reduce the spread of cancer.

A five-amino acid protein fragment has been identified as reducing the metastatic spread of breast, prostate and lung cancer in mice. The research was carried out by US and Norwegian researchers from the Boston Children’s Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College and the University of Bergen in Norway suggest that the protein could be used to potentially block the spread of various cancers.

Cancer usually kills not because of the primary source (the initial tumor) but because of it’s spreading throughout the body, the metastasis. If you can prevent metastasis of cancer, then you can dramatically reduce mortality rates. Most cancers usually spread throughout the body and impact on other organs, eventually causing organ failure and death.

One of the researchers, Dr Randolph Watnick, has in the past demonstrated that cancers capable of metastasis actually produce proteins that help them spread throughout the body. Tumors that cannot metastasize release prosaposin and this protein activates expression of a second protein called thrombospondin-1 in tissues throughout the body where metastatic tumor cells can spread. The protein Thrombospondin-1 makes these otherwise-permissive tissues resistant to metastasis.

The study used models of various cancers, marrow transplants and gene knockout experiments to confirm their findings.

Dr Watnick suggests: “Others have shown that tumors recruit monocytes to future metastatic sites, which help to set up a permissive environment for tumor cells to metastasize. Our results suggest that non-metastatic tumors do the same thing, but instead of creating a permissive environment, the monocytes create a refractory environment by producing thrombospondin-1.”

Some very interesting research that will hopefully lead to drugs that dramatically limit the spread of cancer throughout the body.

Low Dose CT Scans for Detecting Lung Cancer

Lung CT Scan

Lung CT Scan

Healthday has reported that a new study has found a new way of detecting lung cancer early. The study has found that by using low dose CT scans on high risk patients, lung cancer can be spotted much early than with previous detection methods.

CT scans are able to detect anomalies in the lungs earlier than x-rays, which can give patients a significant advantage from starting treatment earlier than normal. The scans were used on patients with high risk factors, either from environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals that cause lung cancer or family history.

There is a radiation risk associated with CT scans, but new computerized tomography technologies are limiting that level of exposure. In high risk patients that downside is offset by the benefit of early treatment and avoid unnecessary biopsies that the CT scan can determine are non-threatening.

Dr. Stephen Machnicki of Lenox Hill Hospital suggests that this method for detection will someday be very commonplace: “It may someday be like using mammograms,”. Dr Machnicki suggests that the study only confirms what many radiologists have suspected for a long time, that low dose CT screening can be very effective in spotting lung cancer in it’s early stages.

The study was based on results from the National Lung Screening Trial, which included more than 50’000 heavy smokers, so patients in the high risk category for lung cancer. The study concluded that by early screening with low dose CT scans, risk of death from lung cancer was lowered by as much as 20% compared to standard detection methods.

Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States with more than 200’000 new cases diagnosed every year and almost 160’000 deaths recorded every year. Most of the cancers occur from tobacco use, but exposure to toxic chemicals in the workplace is also a prominent cause of lung cancer.

The researchers in a second study used people who had been very hardcore smokes (a pack a day for 20 or 30 years), had an occupation with high lung cancer risk, a family history of lung cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They gave these high risk patients low dose CT scans and looked for nodules or other abnormalities in the lungs. Once a nodule or abnormality was spotted, patients were advised to get a biopsy. They found that 4% of patients were determined to have lung cancer in it’s early stages, detected with the assistance of the CT scan.

Sometimes the CT scan in inconclusive and small nodules may not always be a cancer beginning to form. Often nodules are just inflamed or there is scarring on the lungs which looks like some kind of abnormality. So there still needs to be some research into how best to use the low dose CT scans and finding which nodes are of real concern.

At this stage, researchers are considering regular low dose CT scans as an option for patients in the high risk category for lung cancer. Patients who have been life long smokers would probably benefit from an annual scan to look at the condition of their lungs, and doing more regular scans increases the radiation risk from the CT scan. However, aggressive cancers may develop so quickly that they can develop in between scans, making this approach ineffective.

Of course as technology progresses we will see more effective use of CT scans and hopefully lower radiation risk from the devices. Eventually we may be use CT scans to check for many more forms of cancer in their early stages, and researchers continue to look at all of the potential uses.

Help Battling Lung Cancer

Cancer Support Groups

Cancer Support Groups

To be informed you have any kind of cancer creates considerable mental hardship for the patient and their household, especially true when it comes to lung cancer for its a) very low survival rates and b) influence over the quality of daily life for whatever period they have left. Even during times when the sufferer survives the ailment, they’re going to likely have to endure surgical treatment to clear out portions of the affected lung and/or courses of chemotherapy/radiotherapy which additionally have various negative effects for instance persistent queasiness, thinning hair and anaemia.

Even so, daily life with cancer malignancy needn’t be a consistent routine of tragedy and gloom. On a yearly basis, around 12.7 million men and women are told they are troubled with some form of cancer, and a lot carry on living happy, gratifying day-to-day lives even during their treatment options.

To help them in protecting a high quality of life, and to provide aid and guidance where it’s required, there are numerous organizations that happen to be devoted to helping cancer patients and their loved ones through the trying times ahead. Here are a handful of of them.

Macmillan Cancer Support is a volunteer organised charity organisation that gives nursing and help to individuals coping with many forms of cancer and also fund raising in order to finance vital areas of the struggle with the condition (for example research and product development, psychological help and health care).

They are able to help with a very broad selection of details, from applying for money that will help take care of the cost of living with cancer to bereavement counselling for anyone left behind if the worst happens.

Marie Curie Cancer Care was created in 1948, and is a nonprofit organisation that seeks to supply free nursing care to terminally ill patients – offering them the opportunity to be cared for in their homes (something which few terminally ill cancer affected individuals are able to do).

The charitable organisation also finances study by numerous different research groups at British educational institutions who are perpetually aiming to find the underlying causes of (and potential control of) cancer.

Mywavelength is a free internet service that enables people with cancer to get in touch with and help one another by searching for those people who are suffering from the identical kind of cancer.

You are able to post on the MWL system when you require advice (or even people to speak with who could most likely identify with the challenges you are experiencing in a way that people without cancer can’t manage) and ask to be contacted over the site.

Lung Cancer Risk Factors

Lung Cancer Risk Factors

Lung Cancer Risk Factors

Cancer of the lung is the leading cause of death among both male and female people who are afflicted with cancer. It is also an exceptionally agonizing, torturous ailment, something which nobody should have to encounter.

Even though many are aware of the various causes of lung cancer, many think that carcinoma of the lung and smoking cigarettes are interchangeable terms; that is, lots of people think that only people who smoke die from lung cancer. But it is the result of more than simply tobacco.

Obviously, cigarette use is without doubt the primary cause of lung cancer globally with cigarette smokers making up 85-90% of lung cancer deaths. As a result, the warning here should be apparent: if you do not smoke then don’t start and if you do smoke cigarettes then do quit. However, it is recommended that you should know about the many potential risks out there – and unfortunately, some of them seem to be virtually unstoppable.

Besides cigarette smoking, there are 5 additional principal causes of lung cancer as outlined by Dr. Joseph Mercola. These are:

1) Frequent exposure to radon
2) Frequent exposure to asbestos
3) Frequent exposure to air pollution
4) Frequent exposure to chemicals
5) Aging

Clearly, these cancer of the lung triggers are a part of the bigger picture of pollution problems that are a direct result of the industrialization of our world. Items like asbestos and radon are in usually avoidable (however might still unintentionally fall victim to their toxic compounds) but common pollution can be something that everybody is confronted with, with basically no chance for escape.

What things can you do to take care of yourself? First, you can avoid materials you understand are risky. Do not smoke, stay away from asbestos, and attempt to be as chemical free as is possible. To fight the pollution that you are subjected to, eat a healthy diet and stock up on antioxidants-Omega-3 oils in wild salmon, acai berry, kale, grapefruits and tomatoes, which are just some of the many antioxidant rich food products which can help you fight cancer-causing free radicals discovered in pollution. Get as much physical exercise as you can and try to avoid eating processed food – it only exposes you to more risky chemical substances.

Carcinoma of the lung kills and it arises from more than solely cigarettes. But always remember that cigarette smoking is the main cause of lung cancer. It is something you can no longer make lame excuses for. If you would like to enjoy a healthy and rewarding life, then you need to end your tobacco habit. Recruit the help of a smoking cessation trainer, like a hypnotherapist, and take your initial steps to a healthier body and happier mind.