Immune System Boosting Drug to Work With Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Nivolumab PD1 inhibitor drug

Nivolumab PD1 inhibitor drug

A number of new drugs have shown the ability to boost the immune system to help it fight cancer. Some of the drugs simply help the immune system detect and kill cancer cells. They do this by disabling the mechanisms cancer cells use to remain hidden.

One such drug is Nivolumab. There is a protein called programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), that helps the immune system understand which cells should die. Another molecule can attach itself to PD-1 to form PD-L1, which tells the immune system to not attack a cell. This prevents the immune system from going overboard and killing too many cells. The problem is the fact that cancer cells are smart enough to product their own PD-L1 protein and avoid detection by the immune system. The drug stops cancer cells from creating PD-L proteins, which helps the immune system notice and attack the cancerous cells.

Trials have seen some great results with Nivolumab, particularly in the treatment of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and other lymphatic system cancers. The drugs are especially useful for shrinking the size of tumors, as the immune system starts to recognize the cancerous cells and pull them away from the tumor mass. Researchers expect these kinds of drugs to be particularly effective at beating cancers affecting the blood and bone marrow.

A drug called pembrolizumab is another (PD-1) receptor inhibitor, showing promising results. A small study showed that the drug shrank tumors in 66% of the sample group.

These results should be looked at with some caution though, because they are phase one trial results. The research has only used small groups of test subjects so far.

According to Cancer.gov, there are 185,793 people living with Hodgkin Lymphoma in the United States. The five year survival rate is 85.3% (based on 2004-2010 figures).

There are some serious side effects with drugs that inhibit PD-1. 22% of the people involved in the nivolumab trial had a serious side effect. That can include inflammation of internal organs like the colon, lung and pancreas.

If the trials continue to go well, we will see these drugs in the market within a couple of years.

HIV Virus Used to Beat Cancer

HIV Virus Used to Beat Cancer

HIV Virus Used to Beat Cancer

An article by Nicole Vowell and Lori Prichard for Ksl.com have highlighted another successful use of gene therapy to fight cancer.

Marshall Jensen was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 2012. This form of cancer is particularly aggressive, so Marshall’s prognosis was not good.

He was involved in a number of treatments and procedures to fight the cancer, but it looked like cancer was winning. Jensen turned to an experimental treatment being tested by Dr. Carl June at Penn Medicine. The treatment uses the abilities of virus to attack cancer cells within the body.

Here is where it gets interesting — the virus in question is disabled variant of HIV. HIV is well known for it’s ability to cause AIDS that eventually kills people. This disabled variant of the virus can no longer cause AIDS, but it still has the ability to travel throughout the body.

HIV excels at inserting genes into cells, which makes it ideal at targeting cancer cells. Billions of T-cells were taken from Jensen’s body. The DNA from those cells was altered with the disabled variant of the HIV virus in the lab. Then the new cells were added to the body to hunt down cancer cells.

Early tests are promising, with 9 of the 12 patients in remission. It is just another example of next generation cancer treatments accomplishing what has been impossible with previous cancer treatments.

The treatment should be of use for other forms of cancer, including the extremely deadly pancreatic cancer.